Hexavalent Chromium in our Drinking WaterSouth Africa is the world’s primary chromium producer. As of 2010, we accounted for 39% of the world’s total chromium
production (Papp, 2010). Chromium occurs naturally as trivalent chromium, an essential element that is nontoxic and does
not pose a carcinogenic risk. However, during certain parts of the extraction and production process, this trivalent
chromium is converted into hexavalent chromium (Beukes et al, 2010), and this is where the danger lies.
The dangers of hexavalent chromium have been well documented by various scholars in a myriad of different texts 1,5,6,8.
Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen6,8, a finding supported by a variety of independent research, including
Beaumont et al’s 2008 study conducted in Liaoning Province, China, wherein the data was “consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr+6 in drinking water”.
Johnson et al (2006) concluded that 26% of chromium is lost to tailings and ferrochromium slag.
This represents a significant portion of potentially carcinogenic chemicals being released into the environment.
This was supported by the 2014 findings of Loock et al, wherein maximum Cr+6 concentrations of 198 and 220 μg/l were measured at two separate sampling sites in South Africa.
This is far in excess of the 50 μg/l drinking water limit stipulated. That same team also recorded an annual mean of 45.3 μg/l at a drinking borehole, with several months in excess of the 50 μg/l limit.
A team in the United States also found cause for concern (Sutton, 2010, in Keevy & Esterhuyse, 2010).
Here, the drinking water of 35 cities in America (the leading importer of chromium) was tested.
Out of these 35, 31 cities were found to contain Cr+6, and 25 of these cities were at levels that pose a carcinogenic risk.
In South Africa, overall chromium levels are monitored, but no differentiation is made between trivalent and hexavalent chromium (Keevy & Esterhuyse, 2010).
This is clearly something that merits attention, as clearly hexavalent chromium poses a significant carcinogenic risk. While writing this, was unable to find current figures regarding Cr+6 levels, which seems to indicate that Cr+6 specifically is still not being properly monitored or controlled.
Keeping in mind that South Africa is the world’s leading chromium producer, it’s not unreasonable to extend the findings of Loock et al to assume that contamination of Cr+6 into drinking water is in widespread prevalence throughout South Africa.
This cannot be ascertained for certain without rigorous testing throughout the country.
While we cannot be sure of the levels of Cr+6 in our drinking water, we can be certain of these levels in Solé Water™.
Our magnetic filtration process ensures that no hexavalent chromium is present in the final product, ensuring that those who drink Solé Water are protected from exposure to this harmful carcinogen
It's not just water!Pure, natural, unpolluted, freshly condensing dew is naturally structured water, Research reveals that water has a liquid crystalline form; although the molecules remain mobile in liquid crystalline water, they move together, like a school of fish swimming in the sea. This is structured water - also referred to as organized water, prepared water, hexagonal water, micro-clustered water (for perfect hydration) and liquid crystalline water, (See "Dancing with water" by Mj Pangman and Melanie Evans), Since most of us have access to water of varying quality produced by commercial water producers or municipal services: we need to urgently consider those options that are able to return tap water to ifs original, hydrating, life-giving state.
References:1. Beaumont, JJ, Sedman, RM, Reynolds, SD et al. 2008. Cancer Mortality in a Chinese Population exposed to Hexavalent Chromium in drinking water. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Epidemiology. Vol. 19, No. 1.
Available at: http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/2008/01000/
2. Beukes, JP, Dawson, NF & van Zyl, PG. 2010. Theoretical and practical aspects of Cr(VI) in the South African ferrochrome industry. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Met. 110 743–750.
3. Beukes, JP, van Zyl, PG & Ras, M. 2012. Treatment of Cr(VI)- containing wastes in the South African ferrochrome industry- a review of currently applied methods. North-West University, Potchefstroom.
4. Johnson, J., Schewel, L., Graedel, E. 2006. The Contemporary Anthropogenic Chromium Cycle, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40,7060-7069
6. Linos, A, Petralias, A, Christophi, CA. 2011. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece- An ecological study, in Environmental Health. BioMed Central, Athens.
7. Loock, MM, Beukes, JP & van Zyl, PG. 2014. A survey of Cr(VI) contamination of surface water in the proximity of ferrochromium smelters in South Africa. North-West University, Potchefstroom.
8. McCarroll, N., Keshava, N.,Chen, J., Akerman, G., Kligerman, A., Rinde,E. 2010. An evaluation of the Mode of Action Framework for Mutagenic carcinogens Case Study II: Chromium (VI).
9. Papp, J. F., 2010. Chromium. In mineral commodity summaries. USGS